How to Evaluate Non-Convertible Debentures for Indian Investment

Non-Convertible Debentures (NCDs) are a popular investment avenue in India, offering a fixed income stream and relative safety. This guide will break down the complexities of evaluating NCDs in straightforward terms. Whether you’re a seasoned investor or new to the world of finance, understanding how to assess NCDs is vital. We’ll explore key factors to consider, risks to watch out for, and even the Debtors Turnover Ratio. Non-Convertible Debentures (NCDs) are a type of debt instrument issued by companies to raise capital. Let’s dive in!

Understanding Non-Convertible Debentures 

Non-convertible debentures, often called NCDs, are debt instruments corporations issue to raise capital. When you invest in NCDs, you essentially lend money to the issuer in exchange for periodic interest payments and the return of the principal amount at maturity. Unlike convertible debentures, NCDs do not convert into equity shares of the issuing company. Instead, they remain as fixed-income investments throughout their tenure.

Features of Non-Convertible Debentures

  1. Debt Instrument: NCDs are a form of debt, which means that investors who purchase these instruments are essentially lending money to the issuing company.
  2. Non-Convertible: Unlike convertible debentures, NCDs cannot be converted into equity shares of the issuing company. The interest rate and tenure of the debenture are fixed at the time of issuance, and the investor receives regular interest payments.
  3. Fixed Interest Rate: NCDs offer a fixed interest rate to investors. This fixed interest rate is predetermined and remains constant throughout the tenure of the debenture. The interest is generally paid out periodically (quarterly, semi-annually, or annually).
  4. Tenure: NCDs have a specified maturity period, which can vary. Investors receive their principal amount back at the end of the maturity period.
  5. Credit Rating: The issuing company’s creditworthiness is a crucial factor for investors in NCDs. Credit rating agencies assess the financial health of the company and assign a credit rating to the NCD issue. Higher-rated NCDs are generally considered safer investments.
  6. Listing on Stock Exchanges: Some NCDs are listed on stock exchanges, providing liquidity to investors. Investors can sell the NCDs on the exchange before maturity if they need to exit their investment.
  7. Risk and Returns: NCDs carry a certain level of risk, and the returns are typically higher than those offered by traditional fixed deposits. However, higher returns also come with a higher level of risk, especially if the issuing company faces financial difficulties.
  8. Tax Implications: The interest earned on NCDs is taxable. Investors need to consider the tax implications based on their income tax bracket.
  9. Secured and Unsecured NCDs: NCDs can be secured or unsecured. Secured NCDs are backed by specific assets of the issuing company, providing an additional layer of security for investors.
  10. Redemption: NCDs can be redeemed at the end of their maturity period, and investors receive the principal amount along with the final interest payment.

Key Factors to Evaluate NCDs 

  • Credit Rating: Check the credit rating of the NCD issuer. Higher ratings indicate lower credit risk. Agencies like CRISIL, ICRA, and CARE assess and assign ratings to NCDs.
  • Interest Rate: Evaluate the interest rate offered by the NCD. Higher interest rates typically come with higher risk. Consider your risk tolerance when choosing an NCD with an appropriate interest rate.
  • Tenure: NCDs come with different tenures. Longer tenures may offer higher interest rates but tie up your funds for extended periods. Match the tenure to your financial goals.
  • Redemption Features: Understand the redemption features of the NCD. Some NCDs are redeemable after a specific period, while others are non-redeemable until maturity.
  • Liquidity: Assess the liquidity of the NCD. NCDs traded on stock exchanges are more liquid than those held until maturity.

Risks Associated with NCDs 

  • Credit Risk: The issuer’s ability to repay the principal and interest is a significant concern. Higher-rated NCDs carry lower credit risk.
  • Interest Rate Risk: NCDs are sensitive to changes in interest rates. Falling interest rates can increase the value of existing NCDs while rising rates can decrease their value.
  • Liquidity Risk: Non-traded NCDs can be challenging to sell before maturity. Ensure you understand the liquidity options available.
  • Reinvestment Risk: If you plan to reinvest your NCD returns, consider the prevailing interest rates at the time of reinvestment. Lower rates may affect your future income.

Debtors Turnover Ratio in NCD Evaluation 

The Debtors Turnover Ratio is a critical financial metric that sheds light on how effectively a company handles its accounts receivable, which are the amounts customers owe for goods or services provided on credit. Although it’s not a direct factor in Non-Convertible Debentures (NCD) evaluation, it plays a role in understanding the financial stability of the NCD issuer.

A robust Debtors Turnover Ratio signifies that the company excels at collecting customer payments within the agreed-upon terms. This efficiency is a positive sign as it reduces credit risk and enhances the company’s ability to meet its financial obligations.

To calculate the Debtors Turnover Ratio, divide the company’s net credit sales (the total value of sales made on credit) by its average accounts receivable during a specific period (typically a year). A higher ratio implies that the company efficiently manages its credit sales, effectively converting outstanding accounts into cash, which can contribute to its overall financial strength and, indirectly, the reliability of NCDs issued by the company.


Evaluating Non-Convertible Debentures is a crucial step in making sound financial decisions. By considering factors like credit rating, interest rates, tenure, and redemption features, you can make informed choices tailored to your financial goals and risk tolerance. Additionally, being aware of credit, interest rate, liquidity, and reinvestment risks allows you to navigate the NCD landscape confidently.

While the Debtors Turnover Ratio isn’t a direct NCD evaluation tool, it offers valuable insights into the issuer’s financial health. By understanding these factors, you can invest in NCDs that align with your financial objectives and enhance your overall financial well-being.

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Investors should carefully assess the terms and conditions of NCDs, including the credit rating of the issuing company, interest rate, and tenure, before making investment decisions. It’s also important to diversify investments and understand the risk-return profile associated with NCDs.



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